Amplifier Classes

Amplifier ClassDescriptionConduction Angle
Class-AFull cycle 360o of Conduction
very low efficiency at around 30%
θ = 2π
Class-BHalf cycle 180o of Conductionθ = π
Class-ABSlightly more than 180o of conduction
with conversion efficiencies reaching about 50% to 60%.
π < θ < 2π
class A
class A
class B
class B
class AB
class AB

Resonance Circuits

Resonance in AC circuits implies a special frequency determined by the values of the resistance , capacitance , and inductance . For series resonance the condition of resonance is straightforward and it is characterized by minimum impedance and zero phase. Parallel resonance , which is more common in electronic practice, requires a more careful definition.This is an active graphic. Click on either for more detail.

Series Resonance

The resonance of a series RLC circuit occurs when the inductive and capacitive reactances are equal in magnitude but cancel each other because they are 180 degrees apart in phase. The sharp

inductive reactance against frequencycapacitive reactance against frequencyseries resonance frequency

minimum in impedance which occurs is useful in tuning applications. The sharpness of the minimum depends on the value of R and is characterized by the “Q” of the circuit.

series RLC circuit at resonance

Since the current flowing through a series resonance circuit is the product of voltage divided by impedance, at resonance the impedance, Z is at its minimum value, ( =R ). Therefore, the circuit current at this frequency will be at its maximum value of V/R as shown below.

series RLC circuit current at resonance

As a series resonance circuit only functions on resonant frequency, this type of circuit is also known as an Acceptor Circuit because at resonance, the impedance of the circuit is at its minimum so easily accepts the current whose frequency is equal to its resonant frequency.
Phase Angle of a Series Resonance Circuit

Phase angle at resonance

Parallel Resonance

parallel resonance circuit

Let us define what we already know about parallel RLC circuits.

parallel rlc circuit

The resonance of a parallel RLC circuit is a bit more involved than the series resonance. The resonant frequency can be defined in three different ways, which converge on the same expression as the series resonant frequency if the resistance of the circuit is small.

parallel resonant circuit stores the circuit energy in the magnetic field of the inductor and the electric field of the capacitor. This energy is constantly being transferred back and forth between the inductor and the capacitor which results in zero current and energy being drawn from the supply.

This is because the corresponding instantaneous values of IL and IC will always be equal and opposite and therefore the current drawn from the supply is the vector addition of these two currents and the current flowing in IR.

parallel circuit admittanceparallel resonance equation

Also at resonance the parallel LC tank circuit acts like an open circuit with the circuit current being determined by the resistor, R only. So the total impedance of a parallel resonance circuit at resonance becomes just the value of the resistance in the circuit and  Z = R as shown.

parallel resonance

Z=(Xc*Xl)/(Xl-Xc) = infinity when Xl=Xc so it is kind of open

parallel rlc currents at resonanceparallel resonance circuit impedance

resonances circuits

the wave is appear once switch is open
close switch at the point to feed LC tank
Armstrong resonant circuit
colpitts resonant circuit
hartley resonant circuit
colpetts with crystal
hartley with crystal
pierce crystal resonant circuit

Differences between Synchronous and Nonsynchronous Rectifying DC/DC Conversion

The nonsynchronous rectifying type, which has been in use for years, features a simple circuit for a switching regulator, with an efficiency barely topping 80%. Subsequently, the appearance of battery-powered applications drawing relatively large power and requiring high efficiency, such as notebook PCs, has led to the development of a succession of ICs for synchronous rectifying switching regulators capable of delivering superior efficiency. Aided by innovations that have facilitated the design of the synchronous rectifying type requiring complex control and circuitry, this type of switching regulator, offering a maximum efficiency close to 95%, has gradually become predominant.